So you’ve been saving diligently for years in your 401(k) or IRA, building up a nice nest egg to help fund your retirement.
But now you’re wondering if you should tap into those funds early to help buy your first home.
It’s a big decision with potential benefits and risks you must consider carefully. Using retirement funds to buy real estate could allow you to purchase your dream home sooner.
But it also means less money compounding for your future and potential penalties.
In this article, you will learn how to determine if using your 401(k) or IRA to buy a house next year is good or bad for your situation.
Using a 401(k) or IRA to Buy a House: Good or Bad Idea
Should you tap into your retirement funds to buy a house? It’s a tricky question. On the one hand, using money from your 401(k) or IRA means avoiding interest charges on a mortgage.
But on the other, you’re robbing your future self of compounding returns and tax benefits.
Mortgage rates are climbing, so the interest savings could be substantial. If you’re in your 20s or 30s, time is on your side to rebuild your nest egg.
You can increase contributions to make up the difference, especially if your income also rises over the years.
The math may also not work out for older homebuyers since they have less time before retirement.
Some things to do would be:
- Check if your 401(k) or IRA allows withdrawals for home purchases without penalties. Some plans do, up to a limit.
- Calculate how much you need for a downpayment and closing costs. Only withdraw that amount.
- Increase retirement contributions ASAP to make up for what you took out. Even small, regular increases can help.
- Make extra payments to pay down your mortgage faster. The less interest you pay overall, the better.
However, the smartest move for most people is to avoid raiding your retirement piggy bank.
While a home of your own may seem appealing now, your 65-year-old self will, even more appreciate the nest egg you built for retirement.
What to Consider Before Using Your 401(K) Or IRA to Buy a House
So should you invest your retirement funds to buy a house this year? The answer isn’t black and white.
If buying a home is essential to you, and you have realistic expectations about the risks, using some of your 401(k) or IRA money could be OK.
The choice is yours, but think it through carefully and consider the following avenues before withdrawing your 401(k)
1. Explore All Options
Before dipping into your retirement fund, consider all other possibilities for financing your home purchase.
Can you put less down? Are interest rates low enough that you can afford higher mortgage payments? Could you take out a personal loan for the downpayment?
Consider how much you’ll lose in taxes and penalties for withdrawing money from your 401(k) or IRA. It may end up costing you more in the long run.
2. Only Withdraw What You Need
If retirement funds are your only option, take out as much as you need for your downpayment and closing costs.
The more you withdraw now, the less you’ll have invested for your future. See if you can leave as much as possible in your retirement accounts so they can continue growing tax-deferred.
2. Pay It Back if Possible
Some plans allow you to repay withdrawals to your retirement fund. If offered, take advantage of this and pay the money back as quickly as possible.
The sooner you repay it, the less you’ll pay in lost opportunity costs. Make repaying these funds a priority in your budget.
3. Understand the Consequences
Before finalizing your withdrawal, fully understand any fees, taxes, or penalties you may incur.
Some plans charge flat fees for withdrawals, while others take a percentage. You’ll also likely have to pay income taxes on the amount withdrawn.
And if you’re under 59 1/2, you may face an additional 10% early withdrawal penalty. Be sure to speak with your plan administrator so there are no surprises.
The Pros of Using 401(k) or IRA to Buy a House
Using your retirement funds to buy a house could be smart in 2023. Here are a few of the major pros to consider:
1. No Strict Lending Requirements
You can access your own money without strict bank lending requirements. Say goodbye to income verification, low debt-to-income ratios, and high credit score demands.
2. Lower Interest Rate
401(k) and IRA loan interest rates are typically lower than mortgage rates. This can save you thousands over the life of the loan.
And the best part? You’re paying interest to yourself, not a bank.
3. Repayments to Your Retirement Fund Are Flexible
Most plans allow up to 5 years to repay the loan. And if needed, you can usually suspend payments for up to a year.
The Cons and Risks Using Your 401(k) or IRA to Buy a House
While using retirement funds to buy a house may seem easy, long-term costs are significant.
1. Withdrawal Penalty
Withdrawing money from your 401(k) or IRA before age 59 1/2 will typically result in a 10% early withdrawal penalty.
This is in addition to the income taxes you’ll owe on the distribution. While there are some exceptions to the 10% penalty, using the money to buy a house is not one of them.
The penalty and taxes can significantly reduce the amount you have left to put toward a down payment and closing costs.
2. You’ll Lose Years of Tax-Advantaged Growth
The money you withdraw today won’t be available to grow tax-deferred for your retirement.
Over time, this can add up to a sizable amount due to compounding returns.
3. Your Retirement Savings May Take a Hit
Tapping into your nest egg today means you’ll have less set aside for the future. It may be difficult to rebuild your balance, especially if you’re also paying a mortgage.
Ensure you’ve explored all other options before withdrawing from your retirement accounts.
4. Penalties Reduce Your Down Payment Amount
After the 10% early withdrawal penalty and income taxes, you’ll be left with much less than you withdrew to put toward a home.
Make sure you understand the total costs before moving forward.
Alternatives to using your 401(k) or IRA to buy a house
You can consider these alternatives before using your 401(k) to purchase a house:
1. Delay Your Home Purchase
If you don’t have enough money to buy a new home, postponing your plans might be a good idea.
You can improve your short- and long-term financial situation by waiting a few years and saving up a down payment while continuing to contribute to your 401(k).
However, home prices or interest rates may increase during this time.
2. Explore Low Down-Payment Loans
The government offers special mortgage programs that require lower down payments than regular loans.
For example, programs like the Federal Housing Administration or Department of Veterans Affairs loans only ask for a 10 or 3.5 percent down payment instead of the usual 20 percent.
Lenders like Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, Conventional 97 loans, FHA loans, VA loans, and USDA loans offer low-down-payment loan options.
How Much of My 401(k) Can I Use to Buy a House?
You can use up to half of your 401(k) balance or up to $50,000 to take a loan to buy to purchase a home.
However, if you make an early distribution withdrawal, you can use your entire 401(k) to buy a house, but you will be subject to a 10 percent penalty fee and income tax on the withdrawn amount.
Can I Use Your 401(k) To Buy a House Without a Penalty?
Yes, you can buy a house using your 401(k) without a penalty by taking a loan from your 401(k) instead of withdrawing.
Unlike a withdrawal, a 401(k) loan doesn’t incur a 10 per cent penalty from the IRS. The money you receive doesn’t count as taxable income.
Although 401(k) loans must be repaid within five years when used for a home purchase, you may have a more extended repayment period.
The rules may vary depending on your company, so it’s best to check with them for more information.
Can First-Time Homebuyers Use Their 401(k) To Buy a House?
Yes, first-time home buyers can use their 401(k) to buy a house, but it is usually not the most favourable option.
First-time homebuyers are usually at an age where making retirement contributions is essential.
The more money you put into your 401(k) at a young age, the more time it has to grow with compound interest. Using 401(k) funds for a mortgage loan can reduce your savings when it’s time to retire.
Can I Withdraw My 401(k) To Buy a Second Home?
Yes, you can take money from your 401(k) to buy a second home, but you must pay a 10% early withdrawal penalty and taxes on the withdrawn amount.
Before tapping into your retirement savings, exploring other options for purchasing a second home is recommended.
Using retirement funds to buy a house isn’t for everyone, but if buying a home in 2023 is essential to you and you’ve exhausted other options, tapping into your nest egg could help you achieve your goal of homeownership on your terms.
Using your retirement funds to buy a house is risky, but it can work out with careful planning.
Explore all other options like down payment assistance, low down payment programs, or saving more before tapping into your 401(k) or IRA. Your future self will thank you.
With careful planning, using your retirement savings to buy a house could work, but you must go in with eyes open to all the potential consequences.
Think it through, run the numbers, and ensure any risks you take now won’t jeopardize your future financial security. Your 65-year-old self will thank you!